What is the effect of fertilizers? How Many Main Groups?

Nowadays, the demand for cultivation and agriculture is growing day by day. To meet the great food needs of people, in addition to increasing crop productivity, we also focus on improving the soil to enrich the nutrient source to help plants grow well and protect the environment. The role of fertilizers is extremely important, let’s learn more about fertilizers with BSF Smart Farm.

What Is Fertilizer?

Fertilizers are substances or compounds containing one or more essential nutrients for plants, in order to promote the growth and development of plants, provide optimal nutrition for the soil, and can change the environment. Change the nutrients of the soil to suit the needs of the crop.

Using fertilizers increases the fertility of the soil, helping plants to be provided with the necessary amount of nutrients to grow healthy and produce quality agricultural products.

In simple terms, fertilizers are substances that are added to the soil to provide nutrients to the soil, helping plants to grow in a healthy, balanced, and high yield.

Based on the actual situation of each different soil type and the nutritional needs of each group of plants, you can choose to use different fertilizers for plants with their own nutrient content.

Fertilizer Classification

Based on the characteristics of each type of material and materials that make up fertilizer, we can divide fertilizers into 3 main types that we will learn as follows:

  • Organic fertilizer: is a type of fertilizer derived mainly from organic substances, microorganisms, animals, plants … In organic fertilizers, it is divided into different types of organic fertilizers: traditional organic fertilizers. system, microbial organic fertilizer, mineral organic fertilizer, biological organic fertilizer.
  • Inorganic fertilizers: are fertilizers derived from minerals, natural inorganic or chemical products. In inorganic fertilizers, there are many different types of fertilizers: single fertilizers, complex fertilizers, and mixed fertilizers.
  • Microbial fertilizers: Microbial fertilizers are organic products that contain beneficial microorganisms. There are many groups of beneficial microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes used to make fertilizers. Among them, the most important are groups of microorganisms that fix nitrogen, dissolve phosphorus, decompose organic matter, stimulate plant growth & development, etc..

In addition, fertilizers can be classified in many different forms:

  • According to the way of fertilizing (root fertilizer and foliar fertilizer)
  • According to the origin and processing of fertilizers (industrial fertilizer, manure, microbiological fertilizer, natural fertilizer …)
  • According to the physical state of fertilizer (liquid fertilizer, solid form)
  • According to the composition of fertilizer (single fertilizer, compound fertilizer)
  • According to the nutritional elements of the fertilizer (major fertilizers, intermediate fertilizers, trace fertilizers)

Plant’s Nutritional Needs

Depending on the role of each nutrient as well as depending on the type of plant, the growth and development stages of the plant to determine the necessary nutrient requirements.

Nutritional roles and functions of plants

Substances belonging to the group of macroelements are the substances that plants need most in the process of synthesizing organic substances in plants. Other important substances such as yeasts, growth regulators, and catalysts for plant physiological processes, which need less quantity, are classified as intermediate and microelements.

Type tree

Different plants have different nutritional needs. For example, leafy plants need a lot of nitrogen; seeds and tubers need a lot of potassium; For flour plants, sugar needs more phosphorus than other plants.

During the Growth & Development Stage

During the development and growth of the plant, depending on the stage of the plant, the nutritional needs of the plant are different. In the period of strong growth, stem and leaf development, the need for nitrogen of the plant is very high. In the stage of differentiation, flower buds need a lot of phosphorus. The fruit and seed formation stage requires a lot of potassium.

Therefore, for the best growth of plants, it is necessary to fertilize in a balanced way, at the right time, at the right time of plant growth.

Benefits Of Fertilizer For Plants

Improve the land to plant trees, clean vegetables

Some soils have properties and nutrient content that are not suitable for the type of plant you intend to cultivate. Some other lands are used as planting land for a long time, becoming infertile and less nutritious. In this case, farmers can completely choose to use fertilizers to improve the soil before & during the cultivation of plants, orchids or ornamental plants. Only when the soil for planting ensures adequate levels of essential nutrients can the plants grown in those areas be able to grow healthy and be provided with all the essential nutrients for the growth of the plants.

Provides nutrients needed by plants

The process of absorbing nutrients in plants is usually very slow and passive. If the surrounding environment does not have enough essential elements, plants are very susceptible to nutritional deficiencies leading to poor growth, difficulty in tillering, branching, at least leaves, wilted leaves, difficult to flower. The process of using fertilizers during planting will ensure that the plants are provided with all the necessary nutrients to grow and develop well. increase the resistance of plants, for high yield.

Improve Agricultural Productivity & Quality

At some important stages, adding nutrients through the correct use of fertilizers will help stimulate plant growth. As a result, the tree can grow taller faster, give more branches, more leaves, more flowers and high fruiting capacity. This helps the yield to be much improved compared to the time when no fertilizer was used. Along with that, for each type of crop, depending on the needs of the harvest (using flowers, fruits, leaves, stems, branches, roots, …) Beneficial nutritional elements help to increase the quality of agricultural products, such as increasing the size, making the code more beautiful, the taste fresher, etc.

What To Do When The Price Of Fertilizer Is Increasing

Currently, fertilizer prices are increasing dramatically, although input materials are not lacking, prices still increase, causing farmers to struggle. So how to be able to live in a time when fertilizers are increasing like today.

  • Using organic fertilizers: Nowadays, inorganic fertilizers are widely used due to their quick effectiveness and ease of use, but the consequences for the soil and water environment are very serious. In addition, this farming model reduces soil fertility with no long-term effect that can lead to crop failure if left unused. The solution is that we cultivate using organic fertilizers to bring more benefits and more stable prices.
  • Changing the direction of farming: Natural farming is the use of organic fertilizers in production, although yields cannot be improved as quickly as inorganic fertilizers, but organic fertilizers bring many benefits to help people stay healthy and suffer less. more environmental impact.
  • Proactive in supply and self-fertilizer: With self-production of organic fertilizer, it is possible for farms that combine the model of gardens and ponds and have a large source of insect by-products such as soldier fly larvae. Blackcurrants, calcium worms, earthworms to produce nutrient-rich organic fertilizers are the trend for sustainable organic agriculture at the moment.

Organic fertilizers are currently a new trend chosen by many farmers, especially now that there are sources of nitrogen-rich fertilizers from black soldier fly larvae that bring high efficiency in agriculture.

Principles When Using Fertilizer

The right kind of fertilizer

Farmers need to base on the nutritional needs of crops, each stage of growth, and depending on the type of soil to choose the appropriate fertilizer. For example, in the early stages of plant development, plants need a lot of nitrogen, some species need a lot of nitrogen during the growth period, and some species need a lot of potassium. Fertilizers have many types: inorganic fertilizers, organic fertilizers, microbial fertilizers, … But 3 main elements play an important role in the growth of plants: N, P, K.

In time

The growth process of plants goes through many different stages, each different stage needs different nutrients, it needs to be divided into many suitable fertilizer times so that the plants can best absorb nutrients, avoid fertilizing. Once, the amount of fertilizer is too large, causing the plant to be shocked, unable to absorb all nutrients, causing waste, environmental pollution …

Right Dosage

In order to avoid waste and save investment costs, farmers do not over-fertilize or under-fertilize, usually each fertilizer has an indication of the amount of fertilizer for each different crop. Carefully follow the instructions for use, especially need to regularly monitor the growth of plants, soil, and weather to be able to adjust the amount of fertilizer in accordance with each type of crop, each stage of plant growth.

Right Method

For example, for liner fertilizers, you need to water enough, bury the manure deeply into the ground, for organic fertilizers to ensure decay, for foliar fertilizers, it is necessary to mix the correct dosage instructions …

The Right Fertilizer Method


As a fertilizer before planting, it can be applied before tillage or applied at the last tillage of the crop. The purpose of priming is to provide nutrients for the plant when it is just rooted, when the plant has just taken root, the nutrients are available to help the plant grow well. The fertilizer commonly used is organic fertilizer that has been decayed, combined with N, P, K in moderate doses.


Fertilizer during the growth period of the plant. When fertilizing, people should use easily soluble fertilizers such as organic fertilizers, nutrients in an easily absorbed form, processed organic fertilizers, etc. Spread evenly on the ground, trenches, beds, spread. in rows or holes or dissolved, or sprayed on leaves…can be applied around the base and around the canopy. When fertilizing, it is necessary to keep moist or provide adequate water for the plant.

Some causes of fertilizer loss:

  1. Washed out: The amount of fertilizer leached depends on rainfall, soil texture, topography, and type of fertilizer used. In the case of heavy rainfall, poor soil structure, and sloping terrain without cover, the fertilizer will be easily washed away.
  2. Evaporation: Fertilizer evaporation can be caused by chemical reactions, microorganisms.. especially for fertilizers sprayed on leaves.
  3. Confined: When fertilizer is applied to the soil, it can be trapped so that the plant cannot absorb it.

Effects of Fertilizers on Plants

  1. There are many important factors affecting the ability to grow, yield, and quality of crops: climate, soil, plant varieties, water, pests and diseases, environment, fertilizers, etc., among which fertilizers play a role. very important.
  2. From time immemorial, our forefathers have gathered the experience of “One country, two fractions, three cans, four varieties” or “Beauty because rice is good because of manure” to see the important role of fertilizers in agricultural cultivation. and the balanced and stable growth of plants.
  3. Fertilizers provide nutrients needed for plant growth. In all types of inorganic and organic fertilizers, they contain all N, P, K intermediate elements (ca, Mg, S), trace elements (Fe, Cu, Mh, B, Mo… ) is required for plant growth.
  4. Fertilizer is the main source of nutrients for plants through the roots of the plant, playing a very important role in determining the yield of the plant.
  5. If fertilizing is balanced and reasonable, it will help the productivity of the plant to increase, grow well without crop failure, limit pests and diseases, and improve the quality of agricultural products. But if fertilizing is not reasonable, the tree will grow unbalanced, give low yield, poor quality agricultural products, many pests and diseases.

The Effect of Fertilizers on Soil

  • In the process of cultivation, the soil loses a huge amount of nutrients due to the impact of natural factors: water washout, temperature, erosion, weather… especially a large amount of nutrients in the soil are damaged by plants. removed to serve the growth process of the plant.
  • The best way to add nutrients to plants is to use fertilizers.
  • Fertilizers provide nutrients, organic matter, beneficial microorganisms to the soil, effectively improve the soil, increase the fertility of the soil.
  • For example, inorganic fertilizers provide nutrients to the soil. Organic fertilizers improve soil texture, increase the amount of organic matter, beneficial microorganisms for the soil.
  • However, if using inorganic fertilizers for a long time without adding organic fertilizers, it will cause the soil to degrade, become discolored, and harden.
  • There is a close relationship between fertilizer crops and soil. In which, soil is an important bridge between plants and fertilizers, a place to store and provide nutrients from fertilizers for plants.
  • To properly fertilize, to bring into full play the role of fertilizers, it is necessary to base on the nutritional needs of crops, soil characteristics (fertility, pH, soil mechanical composition ..), climate and time. Details, characteristics of each type of fertilizer, farming practices, etc.


The Impact Of Fertilizers On The Environment

  1. Excess fertilizer in the soil. Because in the cultivation process, farmers use fertilizers improperly, applying too much fertilizer, causing the plants to not absorb all. This is often the case with inorganic fertilizers. Toxic substances contained in fertilizers will follow the water source to penetrate deep into the soil, polluting the soil and water sources.
  2. Pollution from fertilizer processing plants due to rudimentary processing technology, untreated wastes into the environment causes odors, pollution of water and soil, and greatly affects human health. .
  3. It is from applying too much fertilizer that agricultural products have residues of chemicals in agricultural products, greatly affecting the value and quality of agricultural products, causing harm to users.
  4. A large amount of fertilizer during use is washed away by water, according to water sources, polluting surface water. A large part of fertilizer is evaporated causing air pollution.

Fertilizers play an important role in maintaining and fostering soil fertility, which is an important element of a sustainable agriculture.

In the process of agricultural cultivation, when investing in fertilizers, farmers should not compare 1kg of this fertilizer with 1kg of that fertilizer, but need to compare the effectiveness of that fertilizer for the family economy. .

If investing in cheap but effective fertilizers is not available, the plants do not yield, pests and diseases are harmful, unbalanced growth …   will only cause farmers to sink deeper into debt.

The area of land for agricultural production is increasingly limited while the increasing population leads to an increase in the demand for food. To be able to meet the needs of human use, it is necessary to increase intensive farming and increase crop yield.

One of the core solutions to this problem is the use of suitable organic fertilizers to provide nutrients to the soil and plants.

Current Trends of Fertilizer Use

Vietnam’s Fertilizer Potential

Vietnam has a great potential for organic fertilizer production, with many advantages in terms of raw materials, especially agricultural by-products. Therefore, in order to achieve the goal of domestic production and consumption of organic fertilizers reaching 3 million tons and exporting 0.5 million tons by 2020, it is necessary to step up the production and use of organic and medium-sized fertilizers. ensure food security, while improving the quality of agricultural products, while gradually restoring the ecosystem affected by the abuse of chemical fertilizers, towards building a clean and high-quality agricultural production, efficient and sustainable.

Organic Fertilizer Is The New Trend

  1. As of June 2019, the number of recognized organic fertilizers circulating in Vietnam was 2,487 products, an increase of 3.5 times compared to December 2017, a faster increase than the number of inorganic fertilizers. recognized at the same time. The whole country has 265 organic fertilizer factories, accounting for 31.6% of the 838 fertilizer factories and increasing nearly 1.47 times compared to the number of 180 factories in 2017.
  2. The production of organic fertilizers at households has also developed rapidly in recent times. Some large enterprises such as Guilin Group, Loc Troi Group, Song Gianh Corporation… have cooperated with many localities across the country to invest in organic agricultural production, in which they are transferred to other countries. The process of reusing by-products in production and daily life as organic fertilizer for farmers.
  3. Many organic fertilizer factories are invested with modern and large-scale production lines, allowing the creation of stable, good quality organic fertilizers, and more efficient use of available raw materials. such as organic waste from livestock, farming, fisheries, processing industry, domestic waste and organic substances in nature (seaweed, seaweed…). As a result, the capacity of factories and the production of organic fertilizers have increased markedly, reaching 1.19 million tons in the first 6 months of 2019 alone.

The improper application of fertilizers by farmers, the wrong dose, the wrong time, the wrong type and the overuse of inorganic fertilizers has caused bad effects on the land, plants, the environment and people.

Specifically: Chemical fertilizers are mostly derived from acids, so they will sour the soil, reduce the pH, poison the soil, accumulate heavy metals, and disrupt the soil structure. Chemical fertilizers cause environmental pollution, ecological imbalance, increase the susceptibility of plants to diseases by destroying useful microorganisms in the soil. Chemical fertilizers also cause damage to the roots, affecting the absorption of nutrients and creating conditions for disease invasion.

Chemical fertilizers are still dangerous and toxic such as: The quality of agricultural products is reduced due to the large amount of chemical residues in the plants, which affects the health of consumers; risk of causing methaemoglobin diseases and cancer if eating food with residual NO2- and NO3- as well as many other diseases when eating plants contaminated with chemicals from fertilizers.

Organic fertilizers are currently a new trend chosen by many farmers, especially now that there are sources of nitrogen-rich fertilizers from black soldier fly larvae that bring high efficiency in agriculture.

You can read more: Calcium Fertilizer – A Great Source of Nutrition

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