What Is Manure? How to Compost Properly Techniques

Currently, when there are too many chemical fertilizers, but manure is always chosen because of its safety and effectiveness. Manure offers great uses and benefits. Support for the development of plants from the time of germination until flowering and fruiting. Let’s learn the benefits of manure with BSF Smart Farm.

What Is Manure?

Manure is an organic fertilizer that is formed from animal waste: urine, cattle and poultry manure, … and agricultural by-products (straw, straw, grass, vegetables), organic waste. and green manure. Manure is quite familiar to farmers and widely used because it can be produced at home by traditional composting methods or composted with biological products. Manure offers many significant benefits and is less harmful to the environment, providing valuable nutrients such as N (Nitrogen), P (Phosphorus), S (Sulfur), K (Potassium), This nutrient comes from the food of animals.

The nature of manure is not directly used for plants. But they have to go through the decomposition process of the organism. Fertilizer is usually only used as a primer before the cultivation seasons. Before fertilizing, manure must be composted according to the correct process. If the efficiency is not high, it even reduces the yield of the plant.

Nutritional Value Of Manure

Type of manure H­2O N P2O5 K2O CaO MgO
Pig 82.0 0.80 0.41 0.26 0.09 0.10
Cattle 83.1 0.29 0.17 1.00 0.35 0.13
Horse 75.7 0.44 0.35 0.35 0.15 0.12
Chicken 56.0 1.63 1.54 0.85 2.40 0.74
Duck 56.0 1.00 1.40 0.62 1.70 0.35

+ Micronutrient composition in manure:

In 10 tons of manure, some trace elements can be removed as follows:

Bo: 50 – 200 g; Mn: 500 – 2000 g; Co: 2 – 10 g
Cu: 50 – 150 g; Zn: 200 – 1000 g; Mo: 2 – 25 g

Benefits of Using Manure

  • Help plants grow healthy, especially provide nutrients for plants to grow leaves and avoid leaf fall
  • Provide nutrients for plants such as macronutrients (phosphate, nitrogen, potassium), medium (calcium, mg, sodium) and micronutrients (zinc, copper…).
  • Add organic matter, help increase humus to increase soil fertility, help soil retain moisture and increase nutrient retention.
  • Stimulates root growth, helps to increase the resistance of plants to harsh weather such as drought, sun, erosion and increases resistance to pests and diseases.
  • Create a good living environment for beneficial microorganisms to grow such as earthworms, useful microorganisms, etc.

Popular Manure Types

1. Cow fertilizer

Cow manure is the waste of cows, which is considered to bring many benefits and high economic value, especially providing many nutrients for soil and plants. Cow dung is extremely environmentally friendly and is used by many people to improve the soil. Dry cow manure helps to retain moisture for plants, increase humus, make the soil more porous, not loose or too tight, limit root rot, and help plants grow and develop well. However, you should note that because cow dung is formed from cow’s food source, it will be derived from weeds, so cow manure will contain grass particles if not handled carefully, it will accidentally create an opportunity for cows to grow. weed growth.

How to use cow manure rationally: Use dry cow manure to fertilize before planting. Ground cow manure should not be spread on the ground near vegetables because this will cause the vegetables to be contaminated with some harmful microorganisms that are harmful to health. Do not fertilize a lot of cow manure for seedlings because it can cause the plant to be malnourished from a young age. Do not abuse and fertilize too much, just apply enough around the base of the tree. Cow manure is suitable for ornamental plants, coffee, dragon fruit, etc.

2. Chicken manure

  • Chicken manure has the ability to improve soil, reduce salinity, acidity and help retain moisture well.
  • Providing a large amount of organic matter, adding beneficial microorganisms to the soil to help increase fertility.
  • Nutrition in chicken manure can increase plant resistance, reduce diseases that damage plants and plant roots.
  • Increase the rate of pollination, successful fruit set and taste for agricultural products.

Especially, chicken manure contains high levels of potassium and minerals, so it is very good to use for fruit trees. Chicken manure is suitable for some plants such as: chili (restricts pests and diseases, produces many fruits), fruit trees (fertilizes during the fruit growing period) … Not suitable for some plants such as: vegetable crops, fruit trees. tops (pumpkin, gourd).

How to use chicken manure rationally: Using chicken manure to fertilize plants in the growing period will bring the best effect. Use chicken manure as a primer before sowing or planting and should be spread evenly in the furrows, then rake evenly on the surface of the soil to penetrate the soil faster and help the plants absorb quickly. When fertilizing, it should be combined with other inorganic fertilizers and it is necessary to dig the soil thoroughly, spread the fertilizer evenly and mix it with the soil. To stimulate leaf growth, we can combine with dry fertilizer – N (Nitrogen).

3. Goat fertilizer

Goat manure is the waste of goats, belonging to the natural organic fertilizer category, which is considered a fertilizer containing high nutritional content and balance. According to data, an average of 1 ton of goat manure contains up to 22kg of nitrogen and contains many other nutrients for plant growth such as: NPK, beneficial microorganisms, medium minerals and trace elements.

Goat manure helps to increase the fertility of the soil, creating a good living environment for beneficial microorganisms to grow, helping to improve crop yields and reduce chemical residues in plants and soil. Goat manure is suitable for some plants such as roses (makes the plant more plump), orchids, vegetables.

How to use goat manure rationally: It can be applied directly to crops, but you can mix rotting goat manure with the soil before planting to make the soil more porous, providing more nutrients for plants and animals. easier for roots to absorb. Fertilizer should be applied in the fall because the nutrients will gradually seep into the soil in the winter and take effect in the spring.

Drawbacks of Manure

  • Cannot be used immediately, but must undergo microbial decomposition, resulting in lower nutrient content than other fertilizers.
  • Large amounts of fertilizer must be used, a lot of labor is required in the process of fertilizing and composting, and additional transportation costs.
  • But before fertilizing, it must be incubated according to the correct process to eliminate pathogens.
  • If using fresh fertilizers directly on plants will not bring high efficiency, reduce productivity and also affect human health, plants will reduce yield.
  • Using manure will sour the soil because when fermented manure contains organic acids, it must be applied with lime, so it will cost more.

Manure Composting Method

Hot tempering method:

  • When manure is removed from the barn for composting, the manure is laid in layers where there is a waterproof substrate, but not compacted. Then water the manure, keeping the humidity in the compost pile 60 – 70%. An additional 1% may be mixed with flour (by weight) in the case of a large amount of fillers. Mix 1 – 2% superphosphate to keep nitrogen. Then put mud on the outside of the pile. Water the manure pile daily.
  • After 4-6 days, the temperature in the compost pile can reach 60oC. Microorganisms that break down organic matter grow quickly and strongly. Aerobic microorganisms predominate. Due to the strong activity of microorganisms, the temperature in the manure pile increases rapidly and reaches a high level. To ensure that the aerobic microorganisms work well, it is necessary to keep the compost pile loose, porous and airy.
  • The hot incubation method has a good effect on killing weed seeds, eliminating the germs of pests. The incubation time is relatively short. Only 30-40 days is finished composting, compost can be used. However, this method has the disadvantage of losing a lot of protein.

Cold tempering method:

  • Manure is removed from the barn, layered and compacted. On each layer of manure, sprinkle 2% phosphate fertilizer. Then incubate the powdered soil or dry mud, pound it, and then compact it. Usually manure piles are arranged with a width of 2 – 3 m, the length depends on the length of the soil. The layers of manure are arranged in turn until the height of 1.5 – 2.0 m. Then put mud on the outside.
  • Due to the compaction for the background inside the manure pile to lack oxygen, the environment becomes anaerobic, the carbon dioxide in the manure pile increases. Microorganisms work slowly, so the temperature in the manure pile does not rise as high as 30-35oC. The nitrogen in the manure pile is mainly in the form of ammonium carbonate, which is difficult to break down into ammonia, so the amount of protein lost is greatly reduced.
  • According to this method, the composting time must last 5 – 6 months before the compost can be used. But manure has better quality than hot compost.

Method of hot annealing first, cool after:

  • The manure is taken out and placed in layers that are not compacted right away. Leave it on for 5 – 6 days for microorganisms to network. When the temperature reaches 50 – 60oC, compaction is carried out to turn the manure pile into an anaerobic state.
  • After compacting, put another layer of manure on top, do not compact. Leave for 5-6 days for microorganisms to work. When it reaches a temperature of 50 – 60oC, it is compacted again.
  • Keep doing this until the required height is reached, then put mud around the pile. The transformation process in the compost pile takes place as follows: hot compost begins to saturate, then switch to cold composting by compacting the compost layer to keep nitrogen from being lost.
  • In order to promote the rapid absorption of manure in the hot composting stage, some other fertilizers are used as yeast such as dung, silkworm, chicken, duck, etc. Soft is added to the layer of manure when it is not compacted.
  • Composting in this way can shorten the time compared to cold composting, but it must take a longer time than hot composting.
    Depending on the time when there is a need to use manure, an appropriate composting method should be applied to both ensure that the fertilizer is used at the right time and the quality of the fertilizer.

Manure Treatment Methods


The level of the barn has the effect of keeping warm, creating dry conditions for cattle, and increasing the volume of manure. Therefore, manure should have the effect of absorbing fecal water, urine, keeping nitrogen and increasing both volume and quality of manure. It is necessary to choose a good litter and conduct the litter carefully.

Farmers often use straw, legume leaves, green manure plants, leaves, hay… to make manure.


It is a necessary measure before bringing manure to fertilize the field. Because in fresh manure, there are many weed seeds, many insect pupae, many spores, dormant fungi, actinomycetes, bacteria and disease-causing nematodes. Composting has the effect of using relatively high temperatures in the process of decomposing organic matter to destroy weed seeds and insect germs, plant diseases, and promote the decomposition of organic matter, speeding up the composting process. mineralized so that when applied to the soil, organic fertilizer can quickly provide nutrients for plants.

On the other hand, in fresh manure, the C/N ratio is high, which is a favorable condition for microorganisms to decompose organic matter in the early stages of strong activity. They will use a lot of nutrients, so they are likely to compete for nutrients with the plant.

Why Compost?

  • Before fertilizing, the manure must be composted according to the correct process, do not use fresh manure to fertilize the plants because the efficiency is not high, the smell is very bad, affecting the environment and even reducing the yield of the plants. .
  • Fresh manure contains many weed seeds inside, even many spores of fungi, bacteria or nematodes that can cause plant diseases. The purpose of thermogenic composting is to remove pathogens and weeds for plants, helping to convert indigestible substances into easily digestible substances for better absorption by plants.

Notes on Effective Use of Manure

  • Only composted manure should be used to fertilize the field. Or use to fertilize nurseries and crops.
  • Manure can be transported soon to the field. However, to ensure the quality of manure does not decrease. Do not divide into many small groups.
  • Manure should be used for priming. When fertilizing, it should be applied back to the soil to avoid loss of N. It is necessary to bury more deeply for soils with light mechanical components. Or for drier climates also need to bury the manure deeper.

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