BSF Smart Farm lists a number of pests and diseases on coffee trees that people need to know

It can be said that coffee trees in recent years have contributed a huge part to the economic, social and cultural life of our country in recent years. Each year coffee trees bring in a turnover of over 2 billion USD. Across the country, there are currently hundreds of thousands of households with millions of people whose lives depend directly or indirectly on coffee trees. Coffee trees have also created jobs and income for millions of people.

In order for coffee trees to grow stably and sustainably, bring income to people, stabilize their lives, eliminate hunger and reduce poverty, it is necessary to pay attention to all stages from production, care, harvesting, and processing. transform, export…

But there is a more concerning issue: in recent years, the situation of pests and diseases on coffee trees is becoming extremely complicated, the application of pest control measures is still limited, many There is no specific treatment for this disease, and the use of pesticides on coffee plants also has many issues worth discussing.

According to practical experience, pests and diseases will often appear after coffee is harvested until the end of the dry season and the beginning of the rainy season. This is a period of quite rapid development and there are many types of pests and diseases on coffee trees that farmers need to pay attention to, to help farmers identify the basic characteristics of pests and diseases that damage coffee in order to have good results. effective prevention measures.

According to the Plant Protection Department, the group of pests and diseases on coffee trees is very rich and diverse, including 18 main types of pests. Important pests belong to 6 families of 3 orders including beetles, winged beetles and lepidopteran beetles. The most common diseases that appear are the following: mealybugs, root-damaging cicadas, stem borers, branch borers, and fruit borers; Rust and other fungal diseases…

Mealybugs

Mealybugs are one of the main pests on coffee plants. In recent years, mealybugs have caused widespread damage in most coffee growing areas. They not only cause loss of productivity but also affect the quality of finished coffee.

Mealybugs damage coffee from the basic construction stage to the business stage. They arise and cause damage all year round, damaging stems, leaves, branches, and fruits and are concentrated mainly in young parts of the tree such as young leaves, buds, inflorescences, and young fruits. They absorb nutrients from flowers and young fruits, reducing the ability to bear fruit. They often appear most often during the dry season when the tree flowers and fruits form (from January to April), but the aphid density will gradually decrease when the rainy season comes.

Cicadas

Cicadas are sucking insects, a type of incomplete metamorphosis with 3 stages of sexual development: egg, larva and adult. Cicada eggs are laid on the trunk and first and second level branches of the coffee tree. After the cicadas hatch and fall to the ground, they immediately burrow into the soil and find tree roots to suck sap. Cicadas’ main food source is sap sucked from tree roots through their suckers. Normally, cicadas live on tree root systems, move deep into the ground and form holes around the roots, breaking the roots. In areas with high cicada densities, they not only suck sap but also cause the amount of hairy roots to decrease significantly, so the tree’s ability to absorb nutrients is greatly reduced. Cicadas usually live at a depth of 10 to 40cm and at a canopy width of 20 to 70cm, this is the soil layer where coffee tree roots grow most concentrated and numerous.

Stem and branch borers

Stem borers are worms that often bore a small hole in the trunk of a tree branch. They burrow deep inside and create a large hole that prevents the tree trunk from coming into contact with nutrients, leading to mass death. Stem borers usually thrive in the dry season and begin to damage from September to October and peak in December and January of the following year.

Rust disease

Rust often appears on the underside of leaves with small, pale yellow spots that look like oil drops. Then, in the middle of the lesions, a layer of orange-yellow powder appears, which is the spore of the rust fungus. The lesions gradually turn white, from the center outwards and eventually appear as dark brown burns on the leaves. The burns can join together, leading to burning of the entire leaf. If the disease is severe, the tree may lose all its leaves, dry branches, have poor productivity and die. In the Central Highlands region, rust disease often appears during the beginning of the rainy season.

Mycosis

The initial fungal disease on coffee fruits or branches appears as very small, white spots that look like chalk dust. Then this layer of chalk turns pink. The disease often appears on the underside of branches and fruit stems, causing the branches to dry out, the fruit to wilt and fall prematurely. On coffee trees, diseases often cause local damage to each tree, killing each branch, and if severe, they can kill the entire tree. Fungal diseases are suitable for conditions of high humidity and lots of light, so the disease often appears in the middle and upper floors, rarely seen in the lower floors. The disease develops very quickly on trees but the spread from tree to tree is a bit slow. In the Central Highlands, fungal diseases often appear from June and July of the year and develop strongly from July to September. In years with a lot of rain and high air humidity, the disease develops more strongly.

 Nematode disease

Nematode diseases cause damage to coffee at all ages, even during the nursery stage. In coffee gardens, the disease often appears with the first symptom being a patch or area of ​​poor growth while the surrounding trees still grow well. On plants, symptoms caused by nematodes can be divided into two groups above ground and below ground. The most obvious symptoms above ground are reduced plant growth, lack of nutrition, yellow leaves, and often wilting in hot or dry weather, reducing productivity and quality. Underground, the disease often causes taproot rot on new coffee and hairy root rot on commercial coffee. On new coffee trees, the disease appears on replanted gardens on old coffee gardens. For commercial coffee gardens, the disease often appears in coffee gardens that have high yields for a long time but are not supplemented with organic fertilizers or balanced chemical fertilizers, causing the trees to become exhausted and lose weight. resistance.

By identifying some of the main pests and diseases on coffee trees, farmers can search for suitable pesticides and special treatments to cure their coffee gardens and bring more energy. High productivity, stable and sustainable development.

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